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   Main Black Sea Features

НачалоBlack SeaMain Black Sea Features




The Black Sea is a part of the Roman Mediterranean and has the same origin. Its unique hydrological and hydrobiological characteristics make it very interesting and one of the most researched seas. The Black Sea is about four times bigger than Bulgaria and represents 1/853 share of the total area of all seas and ocean on the Earth. The biggest depth in the Black Sea is 2245 m, and the average - 1271 m. The Black Sea catchment area is about 2 500 000 sq. km. with rivers from two continents - Europe and Asia. The Black Sea is a typical inner sea. To the west its water washes the Balkan Peninsular coasts, to the east north it is limited by the Russian plain, to the east - by the Caucasus coast and the Kolhidas lowland, and to the south - by the Asia Minor Peninsular. The total Black Sea coastline is 4090 km. The Black Sea is a part of the big intercontinental Mediterranean. The Bosphorus, deep to 50 m, connects the Black Sea with the Marmara Sea, and through the Dardanelles - it has connection with the Mediterranean. To the north, the Kertch connects it with the Sea of Azov, which is considered to be a big shallow Black Sea bay. The Black Sea Basin has undergone a lot of changes in its contours; the connections with other basins have reflected on the geomorphology of the contemporary coast line, its bottom relief and the consecutive water refreshing. The Black Sea climate is characterized with not very cold winter and comparatively hot summer with many sunny days. The atmosphere transference has very important influence over the climate forming above the sea surface. While all oceans and most seas have almost the same high salt content (35‰), which of the Black Sea is two times lower (18‰). The reason is the Black Sea hydrological features and mostly the forming of its water mass, its structure and dynamic. The high and low tides in the Black Sea are insignificant and they are registrated through instrumental observations. As a result of its specific vertical salt and temperature distribution, the Black Sea water has a distinct two layer structure: upper, containing oxygen from the surface to the depth of 200 m, and lower, under 200 m, in which there is not oxygen but sulphuretted hydrogen instead. The existence of two layers reflects significantly on all other hydrological indicators of the plankton and bentos vertical distribution. There isn"t another sea with similar existence of water layers on the Earth.
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2061

Water Balance

The considerable degree of isolation from the World Ocean, the big draining masses and great number of flowing rivers contribute to the unique water balance of the Black Sea. The water balance is an important factor in the Black Sea ecosystem. The changes in the salt and water balance, which are very vulnerable to all kinds of anthropological changes, especially concerning the surface, the...

Заледявания

Заледяванията са характерни за северните му части. Почти ежегодно замръзват районите около устията на Днепър, Буг и Днестър. При по - студени зими се сковава и делтата на най-голямата черноморска река - Дунав. След...
Morphology

Shelf (continental terrace)

The continental shelf is a natural continuation of the neighbouring land, remaining under the seawater after the last freeze (10 000 - 12 000 years ago). It represent very slightly inclined underwater terrace, including the zone between 0 and 100 m, in same places to the depth of 140 m. The Sea of Azov, and also the bays and the open firths of the...



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